The World Banks Pandemic Bonds

The World Banks Pandemic Bonds.

The world bank issued 425 million in pandemic bonds and derivatives designed so investors pay in the event of an outbreak.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

The 1918–1919 “Spanish flu” pandemic resulted in dramatic mortality worldwide.

pandemic (from Greek πᾶν pan “all” and δῆμος demos “people”) is an epidemic of disease that has spread across a large region; for instance multiple continents, or worldwide. A widespread endemic disease that is stable in terms of how many people are getting sick from it is not a pandemic. Further, flu pandemics generally exclude recurrences of seasonal flu. Throughout history, there have been a number of pandemics, such as smallpox and tuberculosis. One of the most devastating pandemics was the Black Death, which killed an estimated 75 – 200 million people in the 14th century. Some recent pandemics include: HIV, Spanish flu, the 2009 flu pandemic and H1N1.

Definition and stages


Main article: 2019–20 coronavirus outbreak

new coronavirus known as COVID-19, may have originated at the Huanan Seafood Market in WuhanHubei, China. There were over 80,407 cases of this coronavirus and 2,708 deaths.[123] This virus is transmissible from human to human. The Chinese government placed Wuhan and the surrounding cities on lockdown. The Emergency Committee on the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) under the International Health Regulations (IHR 2005) was reconvened on 30 January 2020. WHO declared the outbreak to be a Public Health Emergency of International Concern, not a pandemic. As of 24 February 2020, the disease had spread to 36 other countries.


Main article: Influenza pandemic

Wild aquatic birds are the natural hosts for a range of influenza A viruses. Occasionally, viruses are transmitted from these species to other species, and may then cause outbreaks in domestic poultry or, rarely, in humans.

H5N1 (Avian Flu)

Main article: Influenza A virus subtype H5N1

In February 2004, avian influenza virus was detected in birds in Vietnam, increasing fears of the emergence of new variant strains. It is feared that if the avian influenza virus combines with a human influenza virus (in a bird or a human), the new subtype created could be both highly contagious and highly lethal in humans. Such a subtype could cause a global influenza pandemic, similar to the Spanish flu, or the lower mortality pandemics such as the Asian Flu and the Hong Kong Flu.

From October 2004 to February 2005, some 3,700 test kits of the 1957 Asian Flu virus were accidentally spread around the world from a lab in the US.

In May 2005, scientists urgently called upon nations to prepare for a global influenza pandemic that could strike as much as 20% of the world’s population.

In October 2005, cases of the avian flu (the deadly strain H5N1) were identified in Turkey. EU Health Commissioner Markos Kyprianou said: “We have received now confirmation that the virus found in Turkey is an avian flu H5N1 virus. There is a direct relationship with viruses found in Russia, Mongolia and China.” Cases of bird flu were also identified shortly thereafter in Romania, and then Greece. Possible cases of the virus have also been found in CroatiaBulgaria and the United Kingdom.

By November 2007, numerous confirmed cases of the H5N1 strain had been identified across Europe. However, by the end of October, only 59 people had died as a result of H5N1, which was atypical of previous influenza pandemics.

Avian flu cannot yet be categorized as a “pandemic”, because the virus cannot yet cause sustained and efficient human-to-human transmission. Cases so far are recognized to have been transmitted from bird to human, but as of December 2006, there have been very few (if any) cases of proven human-to-human transmission. Regular influenza viruses establish infection by attaching to receptors in the throat and lungs, but the avian influenza virus can only attach to receptors located deep in the lungs of humans, requiring close, prolonged contact with infected patients, and thus limiting person-to-person transmission.

Zika virus

Main articles: Zika virus outbreak in the Americas (2015–present)Zika virus, and Zika fever

An outbreak of Zika virus began in 2015 and strongly intensified throughout the start of 2016, with over 1.5 million cases across more than a dozen countries in the Americas. The World Health Organisation warned that Zika had the potential to become an explosive global pandemic if the outbreak was not controlled.

Economic consequences of pandemic events

In 2016, the Commission on a Global Health Risk Framework for the Future estimated that pandemic disease events would cost the global economy over $6 trillion in the 21st century – over $60 billion per year.[132] The same report also recommended spending $4.5 billion annually on global prevention and response capabilities to reduce the threat posed by pandemic events.

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